Haldwani is the third most populous city in the Indian state of Uttarakhand. With a population of 156,078 in 2011, It is also the largest city of the Kumaun region. Haldwani is located in the Nainital District, and is one of its eight Subdivisions. The Haldwani Urban Agglomeration has 232,095 people, and is the fourth most populous UA in Uttarakhand, after Dehradun, Haridwar and Roorkee. Being situated in the immediate foothils of Kumaon Himalayas, Haldwani is known as the "Gateway of Kumaon".
The name "Haldwani" is an anglicized version of the Kumaoni word "Halduvani" (literally "forest of Haldu"), named after the tree of "Haldu" (Kadamb), known to botanists as Haldina cordifolia. The Haldu trees were found in abundance prior to deforestation for agriculture and settlement. The place was regionally known as Halduvani until George William Trail took over as Commissioner of Kumaon and renamed it to Haldwani in 1834.
Haldwani is located at 29.22°N 79.52°E, in the Nainital district on the right bank of the Gaula River. Geologically, Haldwani is settled on a piedmont grade (called Bhabhar) where the mountain rivers go underground to re-emerge in the Indo-Gangetic plain. The Haldwani Bhabhar stretches horizontally, surrounded by the regions of Ramnagar and Tanakpur and lies between the Shivalik hills to the north and the Terai region of Rudrapur to the south